Language is a dynamic system in which new words constantly appear and obsolete ones move to the periphery, are used less and less, sometimes they die. The pace of change in Russian vocabulary is uneven. During major social changes (for example, the 1990s of the 20th century), the vocabulary of the language is actively enriched. This is due to the need to identify many new concepts in different areas of life: politics, economics, show business, sports, computer technology. Words from other languages are often used for this purpose. [1:45]

The term “borrowing” has two meanings. Firstly, it is understood as “a process in which one language assimilates an element of another language”. Secondly, the borrowed element may be borrowed itself, and it should be borne in mind that it is the words that are most frequently borrowed, rather than morphemes and constructions. [1:46]

In our speech, there are many words of foreign origin, borrowed at different times by the Russian language. For example, words such as слова халат, кукла, арифметика, опера, школа, сундук, шахматы, карандаш, пельмени, свёкла and many others, borrowed from different languages have already entered the language so firmly that they are not even recognized as foreign ones. Such words are borrowed from an etymological point of view. However, a significant number of words that have recently entered the language are recognized by native speakers of the Russian language as something alien. It is these words that are of particular interest from the standpoint of speech culture. [1:46]

The reasons for borrowing words are different. They are divided into extra-lingual and intralingual. [2]

Extra-lingual reasons are due to:

  1. Economic, cultural, political, scientific ties between peoples. In this case, the word is borrowed along with the subject or concept: биржа (from the German burse), брокер (from the English broker);
  2. The desire for international terminology: бизнес - entrepreneurship, бизнесмен - entrepreneur, гонорар - remuneration. [2]

Intralingual reasons for foreign borrowing are due to the needs for enrichment of the lexical system of the Russian language, which is results in:

1) an effort to save language resources: компенсация (from French compencatio) - compensation for losses, нетто (from Italian netto) - net mass (weight) of goods without packaging;

2) the desire of native speakers to deepen their understanding of the subject, phenomenon: бартер (from English barter) - barter without cash payment, демпинг (from English dumping) - sale of goods at artificially low prices. [2]

Currently, there is an expansion of areas of the economy, which is reflected in the more frequent use of economic terminology. Therefore, the process of activating foreign words (economic terms) in use is one of the most important occurring in the modern language. [2]

The penetration into the language of words related to the economy is caused primarily by the transition to market relations and the openness of modern society to international contacts. Orientation to the West and the new system of values served as an important incentive that led to increased use of foreign language vocabulary.

Let us consider as examples the most common and typical type of borrowing - lexical:

Бартер (from English barter). Commodity exchange (without money). Get something by barter. Barter - related to barter.

Дилер (from English dealer). Person or institution - a sales representative of an enterprise, company; exchange intermediary engaged in the purchase and sale of securities. The company is looking for dealers.

Лизинг (from English leasing). Long-term lease of machinery, equipment, vehicles, premises and the like. Leasing - related to leasing.

Монетаризм (from French monetarisme). Economic theory, according to which the money supply in circulation plays a decisive role in the economic policy pursued by the state.

Менеджер  (from English manager).Production Management Specialist.

Тендер (from the English tender). Commercial competition, bidding, auction sale on pre-sold applications from participants in these events.

Холдинг (from English holding). A joint-stock company that uses its capital to acquire controlling stakes in other companies in order to establish control over them. Holding - related to holding, holdings.

Бренд (from English brand). Brand of a product that is very popular with customers.

Инвестор (from English investor). A person or organization investing money in projects in order to increase its capital.

Промоутер (from English promote). A person who is engaged in the promotion of goods / services in the market.

Маркетинг (from English marketing). Organization of production and marketing of goods / services, which is based on a study of market needs. A marketing specialist is called a marketer or marketer.

The examples cited may give the impression of an oversaturation of modern Russian speech with foreign words. At first sight, this is true but in fact everything is connected with the areas of use of these words. Mass media are most saturated with economic terms: newspaper and magazine texts, television programs related to the economic sphere. The means of carrying out new borrowings into the language are the press, radio, television, and a special merit in the distribution of these borrowings belongs to political figures, economists, and journalists. [1]

Each sphere of human activity is characterized by numerous borrowings: Anglicisms, Germanisms, Franzisms, Latinisms, and others. Thanks to the development of science and technology, the cinema and the fashion industry, the strengthening of international relations, a lot of new words come into the Russian language. All these changes in the language do not always have time to be fixed by dictionaries, which, in turn, "show that the language is becoming more mobile, accurately responds to the communication situation as it provides users with the opportunity to choose any option for solving communicative problems." The language develops, changes, absorbs innovations, cutting off everything that is unnecessary and leaving what it needs. [4]



  1. Chernyak, V.D. III.2.Language words in modern Russian speech / V.D. Chernyak. - Moscow: Yurayt, 2014 .— 493 p.
  2. Ruzmetov S. A. About foreign language borrowings in the economic vocabulary of the modern Russian language // Young scientist. - 2015. - No. 3. - p. 967-969. - URL https://moluch.ru/archive/83/15481/ (accessed: 12/23/2019).
  3. Evtyugina A. A., Murzinova Ya. A. Foreign vocabulary in modern Russian // Young scientist. - 2016. - No. 7.5. - p 8-10. - URL https://moluch.ru/archive/111/28086/ (accessed: 12/23/2019).
  4. Tikhonova A.N., Yarullina A.Sh. English-language borrowing in the economic vocabulary of the Russian language // Kazan Bulletin of Young Scientists. - 2018. - UPL https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/angloyazychnye-zaim.. (accessed: 12.21.2019).