О развитии культуры здорового образа жизни студентов


According to the definition given by the World Health Organization (WHO), health is to be understood as not merely the lack of diseases and various physiological defects but as the state of physical, mental, spiritual and social well-being of the individual. Achievement of such well-being is possible due to the maintenance of a certain lifestyle which contributes to the use of the individual’s resources and activates his internal potentials. Thus, the basic factor of health level elevation in the country is not the progress of its medicine, but orientation of the individual on healthy lifestyle. According to the data of the WHO, the level of health by 50-55% depends on conditions and style of the individual’s life, and only by 10-15% - on the health care system functioning in the country [19]. In general, healthy life style (HLS) is understood as activities of the person, aimed to strengthen his health and to observe measures preventing the development of various diseases, which eventually lead to the desired lifespan and achievement of optimal life quality. These activities include: observance of personal hygiene, day regimen, rational diet, physical activity, moderation in everything; presence of positive emotions [28]; lack of bad habits, such as smoking, alcohol, drug addiction, etc.

Activities undertaken to develop health culture of the individual personality acquire a great social significance since its main result appears to be the development of the human being himself [26]. The major social risk groups include pupils of educational establishments, higher school students in particular, because they are subject to continuous stressful situations [2] due to the following causative factors:

1) in the process of education, the diet regimen of students becomes shifted and disturbed [1];

2) students do not observe the requirements of regular physical activity, for insyance, because of lack of time or motivation [20];

3) long-term staying in the study rooms contributes to the development of hypodynamia;

4) the volume of information required to be remembered and comprehended may cause informational overloading [14];

5) the regimen of rest becomes disturbed;

6) a pronounced sense of loneliness is observed [16];

7) staying with a new group of people may contribute to the development of bad habits due to the necessity to create a falsely understood “positive image” in the students’ environment. By statistics, young people exceed the daily and weekly norm of use of alcoholic drinks (more often it concerns females) [29].

Students’ health produces a cardinal influence on functioning of the society in general [4, 6, 22], pre-determines the potential of the country and possibilities of the national economic growth [13, 18]. Health produces an influence on the efficiency of the work performed, on social interrelations, spiritual stability and vitality of the individual [16]; that is why it is critically significant to motivate students on healthy lifestyle and to provide the required conditions during the period of their study at the higher school.

Development of students’ value priorities on healthy lifestyle is associated with participation of a number of factors: influence of the state (society); influence of the educational establishment; influence of the surrounding people (family, relatives and friends); self-motivation.

Influence produced by the state (society). One of the main directions of the internal policy in the Russian Federation is to form the attitude of the population that healthy life style (HLS) is a personal and social priority [9]. This political orientation may be proved by the analysis of normative-legal documents on the basis of which there has been constructed the system for forming intentions towards HLS in the Russian population in general and in students in particular.

(1) The Decree of the Russian President, dated from March 24, 2014, № 172 “On All-Russian physical-cultural and sports complex ‘Readiness for work and defense’ (RWD)” establishes the requirements for physical preparedness of the RF citizens of different age groups. Students predominantly belong to the fifth and sixth level with established norms, fulfillment of which gives the following advantages: a) additional points to the results of the Universal National Exams for young people applying to the universities; b) from the year of 2017 – additional payment summed to the students’stipend, etc.

There has been envisaged a number of additional actions for students. For instance, students should be obligatorily informed about introduction of the RWD complex (including conduction of corresponding measures, such as scientific-practical conferences, seminars, etc.). There should be re-developed and/or newly designed normative documents of the educational establishment; and these documents must regulate students’ training in the RWD (including re-development of training programs in physical culture), etc. The well understoood significance of the problem of physical-cultural training of the population is substantiated by including the indices of this activity realization into the objective indices of evaluation of social-economical development of the RF subjects within the period up to March 1, 2017.

(2) The Order, dated from August 25, 2014, № 1618-r “On approval of the Concept of the national family policy in the Russian Federation for the period up to the year of 2025”, among the basic aims of the national family policy, indicates “the development of life-protecting function of the family and creation of health-providing conditions for all its members”, realized through mass media propaganda of the lifestyle of families cultivating HLS; as well as through design of educating programs, corresponding literature, computerized educating games, etc.

(3) The Order dated from November 29, 2014, № 2403-r “On establishment of Fundamentals of national youth policy up to the year of 2025” indicates, among the priority purposes: formation of healthy lifestyle values in young people and elevation of their life safety culture by means of involvement into regular classes of physical culture and sports, into propaganda of HLS, development of the infrastructure, improvement of students’ prophylactic medical examinations, etc.

(4) The Plan of the RF Health Ministry activities for the period from 2016 up to 2021, approved on June 14, 2016 includes formation of healthy lifestyle culture among the population by means of changing behavioral patterns (it is based on the Concept of long-term social-economical development of the Russian Federation for the period up to the year of 2020), for instance, by means of giving up smoking and drug addiction, by correcting and controlling behavioral and biological risk factors of non-infectious diseases by means of conducting information-communication  campaigns for HLS development, etc.

Thus, the Russian state purposefully and complexly solves the problem of development of the population’s value priorities on healthy lifestyle; besides, the major attention is paid to formation of new psychological objectives that healthy lifestyle is the goal of any citizen possessing dignity. And since the educational establishment plays an important role in this process, administration of the educational establishment is also included in this process in order to motivate young people [25].

Influence produced by the educational establishment. The university, being the place of students’ long-term staying, produces a direct influence on their general condition and determines priorities of their way of thinking [17]. Certainly, general policy of the university should correlate with the policy adopted by the state, and due to that in most universities there have been created the following conditions for students’ health protection and strengthening:

  • material-technical provision of educational activities (technically equipped study rooms, rooms for conducting practical classes, objects of physical culture and sports, enterprises of public nutrition with available prices, etc.);
  • organization of the educational process (composition of the curricular time table with regard to the presence of breaks enough in duration for students to have a meal [8], the presence of the subjects “Physical culture” and “Valeology” realized in the academic curriculum [12], organization of physical-cultural and cultural-mass measures, etc.);
  • analysis of the effectiveness of the measures performed.
Besides, universities participate in programs and competitions carried out at various levels. One of them and most popular is the open public All-Russian competition “A higher school of healthy lifestyle”. The purposes of the competition are: health strengthening of participants of educational process by means of improvement of health-preserving and health-developing activities of higher educational establishments; summarizing and spreading the advanced experiences in healthy lifestyle development as a factor of raising the quality of specialists’ training [23]. Within the frames of this competition, the university can evaluate its own resources and activities from the viewpoint of provision of conditions for developing healthy lifestyle in students (according to the criteria proposed by the RF Health Ministry), and determine its own strategy of development on the basis of the carried-out analysis [21].

Saratov State Medical University named under V. I. Razumovsky (SSMU) under the Health Ministry of Russia participates in this project for several years. During the competition there are carried out measures with the university students and staff, “round tables”, conversations organized by the university teachers with students living in the hostels, thematic presentations.

According to the results of 2014, the university was in the third place in the nomination “For creation of conditions for health-developing activities and modernization of material-technical base for realization of health-strengthening measures and development of healthy lifestyle”; according to the results of 2015, the university was in the third place in the nomination “For provision of physical and motor activities of students and staff”.

Numerous measures scheduled by the SSMU administration, contribute to the university’s progress in this sphere of activities:

  1. One of the forms of the university’s activities with students is organization of meetings in hostels, and particularly - the activities aimed to prophylaxis of deviated behavior, bad habits. “Round tables”; prophylactic conversations on the problems of giving up tobacco smoking, maintenance of healthy lifestyle and observance of rational diet; thematic presentations, etc. are regularly conducted.
  2. Every year students of SSMU participate in activities organized both in the city (sports, charity, civil measures, those devoted to building democratic society, propagandizing healthy lifestyle and giving up bad habits) and in the university (faculty sports competitions among first-year students “Good spirits and health”, competitions “Winter skies’ track”, Sundays of health). More than two thousand of SSMU students participate in these mass activities.
  3. Medical care is provided in the consultative polyclinic on the basis of which curative, prophylactic and rehabilitation measures are carried out for students with chronic pathology; and propaganda of hygienic knowledge, healthy lifestyle is performed by means of visual aids, lectures and conversations.
  4. An important step in application of instruments of strategic planning is the analysis of results and effectiveness. That is why Saratov State Medical University annually analyzes the level of students’ satisfaction with the carried-out activities with the help of corresponding instruments, in particular – by means of questioning of students on such problems as health-preserving behavior “Mens sana in corpore sano” and moral-psychological climate in the group of students. Statistical processing and subsequent analysis of the results of the questioning make it possible to trace the dynamics and to form the required correction measures, when it is necessary. For the last three years there has been observed a tendency of positive evaluation of numerous conditions created at the SSMU.
  5. Material-technical supply of the university contributes to the development of students’ healthy lifestyle and is regularly improved. SSMU has its own canteens and buffets for organization of students’ nutrition. To conduct various cultural mass activities there are an assembly hall with premises of the students’ club and a scientific library. Skies’ base; health-strengthening sports camp “Medical worker”; a large health-strengthening complex with a swimmimg pool, a large sports-hall for sports games, a minor sports-hall and training halls function at the university. Since 2015 there also functions the students’ club which activities are aimed to popularize sports and healthy lifestyle among students and staff. Opening of the students’ club has become one of the factors which produces an influence on students’ activity in physical culture and sports, as well as on elevation of their level of satisfaction with the SSMU sports base functioning [5].
The result of the response to realization of the above-mentioned conditions is the increase of evaluation of correspondence of educational conditions at the university to the development of healthy lifestyle.

Influence produced by surrounding people and close relations. In either way a human being copies behavioral patterns of surrounding people who are in close relations with him. Behavior of parents, value priorities of close friends and even inter-personal communication during classes – all these produce a direct influence on the human life style and force the individual to perform corresponding actions and take decisions [7].

Self-motivation. Self-development of a student’s personality is the mechanism of personality formation [15]. Reflection over the necessity to maintain healthy lifestyle refers to the most fundamental questions the answer to which the individual must give to himself. Certainly, the decision will be conditioned by personal characteristics of the student, his spiritual and material demands [11], as well as by his intellectual capabilities since all this is closely associated with the culture of thinking [24]. However, the environment with its functioning social stereotypes, in which the individual develops, will also play a significant role [10]. For instance, the results of the conducted investigations show that students of medical universities pay greater attention to questions of healthy life style because this theme is widely elucidated in their educational programs [27].

Thus, it is necessary to competently solve the problem of significance of health and healthy lifestyle at all levels so that the person will be able to take a right decision, which will reflect value priorities of archetypical human knowledge and which will help him to achieve self-actualization.


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