Research from business and education shows that education is the most difficult to change. This applies to most universities around the world. The largest universities in the world rarely offer innovative approaches to education. This may be Moscow State University or the University of Massachusetts - they are dominated by old approaches to education. This is because these are debugged processes. They benefit the university brand.
In research of the Higher School of Economics, Russia ranks in the first ten countries. Higher school investigated the number of trained specialists in higher education.
How do these changes affect science and education? The volume of scientific research is increasing annually, the barrier between scientific developments in different countries disappears, information can be obtained anywhere and at any time, the research of many scientists can be used as a database.
Today a person needs not only to have knowledge in a certain field in order to be a specialist. He needs to be able to find certain knowledge, for example, on the Internet. Many graphic images will be attached to your request.
There is a shift in the paradigm of thinking of modern man. A person can no longer process such a large amount of information. He needs help. Special programs, information and intelligent systems, databases, artificial intelligence, do this help. This technology stores and processes a huge amount of data. Information systems already help people in many areas of life. For example, in economics, logistics, communications, data processing and others. Education also uses information systems. They can create a student’s profile, record their grades, make communication in an information form, which is available anywhere. However, what to do with all the data collected? What to do with the studied subjects, obtained grades, statistics of visits, area of scientific interests - these data can be digitized and used to help in educational processes.
Creating elements for teacher-student interaction using the intellectual system:
Today mental work is becoming increasingly important. A modern specialist needs to know the laws of physics, the features of working with soil and be able to use specialized equipment in order to build. Knowledge from related fields allows you to be competitive in the labor market. Additionally studied design discipline can be timely identified by the intellectual system and offered to the student. This will allow you to be competitive in the labor market and perform a wider range of tasks than colleagues without an additional specialty. The field of knowledge is expanding. If you not only know how to build, but also understand the design of the soil layer, elements of architecture - you will be a more valuable specialist. You can do the job at a higher level. This will allow you to get more money for your work. Let's go back to the stage of designing educational activities. What could be the problem here? It is assumed that artificial intelligence will help students in the formation of an individual trajectory. This means that someone has to design and configure this system. Now specialists in pedagogical design are engaged in solving these problems. This profession is called - the developer of educational trajectories. This is a new profession. Now it is being introduced into educational institutions. The new system meets all relevant requirements: it reveals and develops systemic thinking, communication skills between different areas of work, engineering skills, the design of the world, and more.
However, the design and configuration of any system is partially subjective. System will work the way its specialist will set up. System also will make recommendations based on pre-developed behavioral patterns. Since this system is designed by a human, you should take into account errors that may occur during the use of the system. Therefore, it should be noted that in the short and medium term, there can be no talk of using artificial intelligence to build an individual educational trajectory without using mentor.
However, the options due to the symbiosis of information technologies and specialist pedagogical design, indicates the possibility of modernizing the existing education system.
Let's look at one specific example: when preparing bachelors in computer science, they need to study special disciplines and courses. They need to be studied so that the university can issue you a state diploma. In addition, there are disciplines that you can choose for yourself. Their student can choose for himself, based on his interests. However, the choice of courses in programming has a number of limitations due to the lack of qualified teachers, rapidly emerging languages and programming techniques. In this case, the system with artificial intelligence can check the resources with which the University has mutual learning agreements, such as platforms of other universities, Russian platform "open education", Coursera, and others. The system can promptly notify the student and mentor about the appearance of new articles, events in which the student can participate or about the start of a new course, which may be considered as an additional discipline (perhaps as the main one, given the current situation with the coronavirus pandemic and the introduction new rules at distance education).
The joint work of the supervisor and the student, or preparation for this joint work, could begin even before the transition to the fourth year education. When using an intelligent system, the collected digital footprint can recommend that the supervisor and the student work together on similar interests. Semantic analysis of works, creating a taxonomy, creating a dataset-all this will allow you to study each other's profile, which records the work and areas of interest of these people. This approach eliminates the situation when you need to choose a research supervisor, without having a plan or topic for work on the final qualifying work.
How education will change when using an intelligent system?
How will science and education change with the introduction of an intelligent system? First, the changes will affect the educational process. Among them are the process of recording the increase in knowledge, changes in educational interests, the time frame for completing tasks, and so on. However, these are just ways to collect information. It is necessary to understand what these manipulations are for. Here it is necessary to note the importance of transformation of higher education goals. Parallel processes that dictate a change in the paradigm of the educational process speak of higher education as an education for the development of the individual and their competence profile. This means that the transforming system should be aimed primarily at the educational demand, and not at mass education and training for the sake of a diploma, which is common in our reality.
Understanding goals and being able to fix them in relation to your personality is an integral part of learning in the future. This ability and awareness of choice is impossible without broadcasting such ideas in school and preschool education. A complex question still has no answer. Therefore, the systems that can be implemented and set up in our reality should encourage the emergence of such thoughts among students. In this case, the system needs time to "understand" your ward and find a way to help him become better. Moreover, the student needs time to adapt to the system and a new form of thought, later becoming a translator of knowledge.
An intelligent system in the educational process will allow you to identify the subject's propensities to a certain thematic group of research or knowledge, increase the speed of learning the material and maintain the "information tone" of the student. There will also be changes affecting the administrative and economic resources of the educational institution. First, we are talking about reducing the cost of maintaining mentoring activities practiced in many Russian universities, reducing time spent and improving the quality and quantitative indicators of student involvement in the educational process. However, these are only side changes.
The main changes will occur in the shift of the paradigm of thinking of students and educators. Institutes are already starting to use the "lifelong learning " approach, where the main task is to learn how to obtain knowledge, successfully accept it and adapt it to an existing demand even by creating something new. All this must be done with a vision of the contexts in which a student with certain skills can see the system.
The problem of adapting the intellectual system of decision support in Russian universities:
"Read books, but remember - a book is a book. You think your brain" - Maxim Gorky.
These words of the great writer reflect the content of my work. Nothing can replace the human brain, because our way of thinking is a combination of experience, emotional background, moral guidelines, and many other components. Therefore, the intellectual system will not be able to fully perform educational or mentoring functions. The personality of the teacher and mentor remains dominant; however, information systems can become an excellent assistant in educational processes.
In many spheres of human life, it is possible to reveal the tendency of Russian technologies lagging behind Europe countries and USA. For example, in the system of financial institution and economy of processing of minerals. However, this lag has helped the development of modern technologies.
Let's analyze the idea on the example of a specific case. In our country, as of August 2018, the share of use of contactless payments from all payments is 42%. This is one of the highest rates in the world. In Russia, almost any small store located near the house has a contactless payment terminal. At the same time, in the United States – the country where this technology was first used – more than 60% of payments are made on credit cards that need to be inserted into the terminal.
Why is this happening? To do that, we need to go deeper into historical background. During the period of widespread introduction of credit cards - around the mid 90's, there was no contactless payment technology. After the successful mass introduction of terminals with the ability to accept cards, it was too expensive to replace them with terminals with contactless payment. Consequently, the speed of technology implementation played a bad joke with the development of the technology in the future. The introduction of contactless terminals meant a huge expenditure of money by entrepreneurs and businessmen. At first, such terminals were quite expensive and only closer to 2015 they became available to the mass market.
Due to geopolitical aspects, the introduction of the technology was not considered relevant in Russia at the time of its appearance, so the technology found a mass demand closer to 2010, which allowed the use of the latest generation of terminals, which already had the possibility of contactless payment.
This situation can be fully projected on the sphere of education and educational services of our country. For many years, our education was one of the best in the world, and in some educational institutions, this status is confirmed to this day. However, globalization and glocalization processes dictate new rules of presence on the world education sphere. Institutions need to adjust and implement certain technologies in order to be able to maintain their presence in the information field of world education and remain competitive in education.
All educational institutions in the United States provide accreditation, which includes the mandatory use of the student analytics system. She keeps track of arrival times, length of stay and so on. In many countries, systems for collecting statistics from learners have also been integrated into educational institutions. However, with the advent of electronic systems, data collection became much easier. However, the systems used were not suitable for the integration of digital footprint methods, which meant their complete replacement.
It should be noted that in many areas Russia is experiencing the first introduction of innovative technologies. This means that the infrastructure for the development of technologies in certain areas was not built before. What happens when existing technologies become outdated and how they will be improved and replaced by more modern ones is unknown.
This discourse should address the personality of the sociologist Everett Rogers and his work "The Diffusion of Innovation", which describes in detail the systematic process of introducing new technology into mass use. In this context, the intelligent system being implemented is at the stage of adoption by innovators - those who are open to new technologies and ready to change the standard established processes. This is largely because the implementation of this system will be effective in changing the goals of higher education, which is now at the stage of acceptance by early adopters from innovators. Due to the introduction of new ideas into the minds of the ambassadors of this approach, work with the system is complicated by the scattered goals of collecting material. As a result, there is no unified system that could be scaled to any university in the country.
Let us go deeper into education. How can technologies be introduced and how can they be applied? First, when we talk about exclusively technical elements and their implementation, it is necessary to understand why they should be implemented and what problems will be solved. Initially, it is necessary to understand "why" and "how" - will be found or created to solve the problem. In order to identify a problem, there is no need to be a person from any particular system of a particular educational institution. It is enough to be in the higher education system and know the specifics of its work. All these tasks need to be solved by pedagogical designers and data engineers working with the system. The first designates the important processes, which should be traced, and the second designs the system, which will function with the least expenses of the finance and will not change habitual actions in the course of use.
The period from 2018-2020 can be called the period of transformation and paradigm shift of thinking, the time of changes in the education system.
Many experts believe that education is a big problem. Smaller schools are less likely to compete with online education, which is increasingly favored by employers. Especially in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic, this approach is becoming a generally accepted educational format.
Now, educational institutions are valid with state support. Those institutions that are on the front, where research is made and discoveries are made, will be able to work despite the problems in the world. However, their “stability” is both good and bad. It is difficult to change your direction when foundations and principles have not changed for decades.
A sharp change in education can do more harm than good. The education system must evolve by changing the form of thinking, which we are approaching systematically with the use of new technologies, equipment of the material and technical base, the introduction of an intellectual system to support the learning process along an individual trajectory of development, and other elements.
Speaking about the intellectual system in an educational institution, based on the studies articles and research, we фcan conclude about the positive effect after using such a system.
In this way, it is possible to increase the level of quality of education in educational institutions and change the paradigm of thinking in basic processes. The described system will be important and necessary for those who participate in the educational process, both from students and from the teaching staff.
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