Scientists alone are not actually able to develop a unified approach to journalism and a single hierarchical knowledge system. It cannot be denied that journalism is primarily a practical discipline, which, at the same time, requires an applied scientific base. Due to such a close interconnection of practice and theory, scientists simply cannot afford to develop a concept that is too far from reality, which cannot be put into practice and which could not open the way to further changes in the discipline. Therefore, scientists should constantly check the results of their research on empirical data that only practicing journalists can provide them with.
But this task often turns out to be quite complicated, since between practicing journalists and theoretical journalists it is possible to observe a lack of mutual understanding and an inability to interact. This is due, rather, not to the banal unwillingness to communicate, but to the difference in interests and in relation to the profession, which create a gap in the worldview of these two categories. Although, if this problem is overcome, there is still a certain time lag between the development and the possibility of empirical verification of the theory.
At the same time, one should not forget that journalism must be taught to students in some way. For this, first of all, it is necessary to understand what journalism needs to be taught.
Journalists can easily obtain a specific set of exclusively practical skills and applied knowledge. Such an approach will form excellent performers from them, but it will complicate for them the process of understanding the industry in which they work, and, especially, its modernization in response to the emerging demands of society.
But if students need to teach science journalism, then in what form and what science should be taught? Of course, it can be stated that the young journalist needs to study all the approaches to journalism described above. It will take the student years to simply understand all existing theories and systematize them even at the most primitive level. Thus, we see a contradiction in the interests of all three groups: scientists are trying to expand their knowledge of the subject, journalists are trying to reduce science to a complex of applied knowledge, and teachers are trying to find a compromise and teach students what is needed10.
Of course, developing a system of knowledge and practical skills with a clear hierarchy and definitions can solve this problem. But in order to develop this system, the efforts of all three interested groups must coincide, and for their effective interaction, a communication mechanism must be developed. Another requirement for the new knowledge system should be its relevance. The new system of journalistic theory should take into account the interests of all groups of society, which journalism affects to one degree or another.
It must be understood that the development of an integrated system of knowledge in the field of journalism cannot be a momentary process, it takes time and a lot of effort to create it. Much work has already been done to create the framework and structure of this system, which in itself is a leap to the systematization of theories in journalism. But still it is worth noting another important aspect regarding journalism. The constant evolution of the media industry and the practical work of journalists requires researchers to constantly record these changes in order to identify development trends and build more reliable forecasts of the future of the media and the media system based on such data. Such actions will also ensure the effectiveness of the future knowledge system and can lay the foundation for changes in practical journalism. Long-term forecasts, attempts to describe only the emerging structures of the media industry and the practical methods of journalism being developed are the main requirements for journalism as a science today.
As an example of one of the definitions of a future scientific system, the following approach can be considered. Journalism as a science is a system of cultural, historical, cytological, economic and other disciplines, which covers the entire cycle of creating and managing the practical activities of journalists in society and their impact on social processes. As a subject of systematic analysis, journalism can be studied as:
- social institution;
- A set of practical exercises to maintain the media life cycle;
- a system of professions;
- a system for creating texts;
- a system for managing mass communication channels;
- part of the media industry.
The basis of journalism is a combination of humanitarian disciplines that study the essence of the spiritual culture of civilization through the influence of texts or messages in the media polysystems. Thus, the text becomes a whole complex of internal elements and external relations in a separate reality in which journalism exists and which is necessary for it.
- Berezin, V.M. Photojournalism: Textbook / V.M. Berezin. - Lyubertsy: Yureit, 2016.
- Konyukova, M. Journalism for all / M. Konyukova. - St. Petersburg: ABC-Atticus, ABC, 2012