In the era of globalization, the post-industrial economy, and the transition to a knowledge economy, human capital has become a key element that ensures competitiveness, sustainable development, and increased well-being.
The main mechanism for transforming human capital into economic growth is technological progress: on the one hand, human capital stimulates innovation (endogenous technological progress), on the other hand, it contributes to the adaptation of new technologies from the world market (exogenous technological progress). In other words, human capital is considered as one of the main factors of innovative development in developed countries.
In sociological and economic research, the concept of "human capital" is used to describe the abilities and skills of individuals that affect the efficiency of their work. Therefore, we can say that in the economic literature productive and inseparable from the individual abilities are treated as capital. On the one hand, the categorization of a person as a capital commodity is unquestionable from an ethical point of view. On the other hand, the introduction of the category "human capital" in economic analysis reflects the recognition of how important the human factor plays in the modern economy .
In modern conditions, the competitive advantages of the economy and the opportunities for its modernization are directly determined by the accumulated human resources in the country and the used (implemented) human resources. The power of a country and society is determined not only by the size of the country, the availability of natural resources, the power of financial capital, but also by the stock of knowledge and skills, intelligence and creative abilities embodied in a person.
The driving force of social development is the human factor, which gives the economy an innovative and intensive character, structural dynamism, and high quality.
Today, the interest of economic science in human creative abilities and the way to activate them has increased dramatically, which coincides with the General pattern of development of modern science as a whole: combining efforts and concentrating research on the human problem. From the point of view of economic theory, this implies a transition to the "human dimension" of society's life, placing the individual as a producer and consumer at the center of the socio-economic system.
It should be emphasized that in the modern world, people and their development are not only a factor that creates social wealth, but also a criterion for progressiveness of social and economic transformations in society, the main goal of social development. Human orientation — to improve the living standards and social well-being of the population, comprehensive development of the individual-comes first in the system of targets for social progress .
The successful solution of modern social and economic problems is impossible without the development of an adequate social mechanism that creates effective incentives and opportunities for self-development of a person, the realization of his potential as an employee and creative person.
The main wealth of any social system is the human potential, which ultimately determines the power of the country and society: the main factor in the development of the latter in the modern world is the human factor. This thesis is actually not directly disputed by anyone, but at the same time it is not taken into account properly in the social practice of Kazakhstan.
A country with a large human resource, other things being equal, has a greater aggregate power. Of course, this resource itself today is determined not only by quantitative but also by qualitative parameters. At the same time, the state policy of economic development is more focused on enhanced extraction and export of natural resources, rather than on the development of the human factor.
Post-industrial society, in the direction of which the world and Kazakhstan are moving, is characterized by information and communication technologies that embody the achievements of fundamentally new areas of scientific knowledge. Innovative restructuring of the economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan involves a transition from development based on the use of natural resources to dynamics based on the use of human intelligence, science-intensive industries and fundamental discoveries. It is obvious that the priority is to improve and develop the human factor that can effectively adapt to the flow of innovations .
The goal of society's development today should be not so much to increase production and consumption, but to provide people with opportunities to choose in the field of health, education, economic and social activities. This postulate is based on the latest development concepts, in particular the concept of human development, put forward in the 90s of the XX century by experts of the UN development Program.
The concept in question essentially captures two pervasive processes:
1) development of the human factor (health promotion, knowledge acquisition, improvement of professional skills);
2) orientation of production and its results on satisfaction of developing needs of the person.
In this context, the role of the population as the intellectual potential of society cannot be overlooked. It is the intelligence of a nation that integrates the intelligence of individuals that becomes the real engine and determining factor of progress.
One of the priorities and key directions of formation of innovative economy should be the formation of competitive human capital are interrelated not only with the transition to the sixth technological mode and the forced industrialization of the national economy, but also with the implementation of the Strategy of Kazakhstan entering the top 30 most competitive countries and the State program of the Leader of the Nation "BOLASHAKKA BAGDAR-ROUHANI JANGYRU".
According to the First President, Leader of the Nation N. A. Nazarbayev, universities play a key role in the field of science. "If in 2010 they fulfilled 33 percent of the total number of scientific and technical programs, today 67 percent of University projects have been approved. Therefore, it is necessary to continue creating applied and research departments in universities. These directions do not bring profit in the short term, but they are the basis for domestic inventions and discoveries" .
Elbasy has repeatedly raised the issue of innovation development, once he asked the government to find "Kazakhstan's bill gates".
The government of Kazakhstan was instructed that every scientist, inventor, engineer, without knocking on the offices, could get support for their ideas. As a result, only the Ministry of industry and new technologies of the Republic of Kazakhstan reviewed more than 2,500 ideas and projects, of which 520 received practical assistance in implementation. Among them - 152 industrial enterprises, 123 small innovative companies, 245 projects of Kazakh scientists.
The economic growth observed in recent years has not had a positive impact on the development of the human factor. Every year, environmental living conditions deteriorate; under the influence of the increasing rhythm and intensity of modern production, neuropsychiatric loads increase, knowledge becomes rapidly obsolete; and the scientific, technical, educational, and health potential of the population is undermined. In this regard, it is necessary:
- improving the environmental situation in the country and strengthening of responsibility of state structures for the environment by increasing the number of ecological areas in the current legislation of Kazakhstan, promotion of financing of environmental protection as a priority state ;
* focus on the development of knowledge-intensive industries, placing the development of domestic fundamental and applied science at the center of state policy;
* improve the training of employees of organizations directly involved in research- innovation process, review the master's and PhD programs, advanced training courses for researchers in order to form key competencies of researchers, introduce effective mechanisms for motivating and evaluating the activities of researchers through increasing the status of scientists, including the widespread use of measures of material and non-material stimulation of individual researchers and research teams, create conditions for the development of student science and support for young scientists, implement a set of measures to increase the recognition of Russian scientists by the world research community;
* elimination of negative phenomena in the education system. The lack of stability and integrity in the education system has far-reaching negative consequences.
It should be noted that each specific measure to address the problems of human development should have two fundamental vectors:
- a) preventive;
- b) medical.
This can be illustrated by the example of such an important task as maintaining public health. As for treatment, this word is followed by measures aimed at restoring lost health. In the case of prevention, various measures should be used to enhance prevention activities. Only vaccination can be considered as a preventive measure. In addition, prevention is now dominated by an approach that focuses on personal behavior, rather than on other equally important factors (housing conditions, safe food, quality water and air, working conditions). Although the latter lie outside the sphere of human control and the support of the state is simply necessary here.
In the Address of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Elbasy Nazarbayev N. A. to the people of Kazakhstan "Kazakhstan's way-2050: common goal, common interests, common future" (January 2014), it was noted that the creation of new high-tech sectors of the economy will require an increase in science funding to the level of at least 3 percent of GDP..".
Statistical indicators of many countries of the world clearly illustrate the positive effect of investment in education and science. So, in General, the national wealth of various countries is only 5% natural resources, 18% physical (production) capital, and the main place - 77% - is occupied by knowledge and the ability to manage them.
The state should pay special attention to the issue of training personnel, which ultimately determines the competitiveness of Kazakhstan. Education and science should give young people not only knowledge, but also the ability to use it in the process of social adaptation and further professional growth.
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- The State Program «Bolashakka Bagdar-Rouhani Jangyru». http://www.e-priroda.gov.kz/index.php/kz/rukh-ni-zh-n-yru-b-d-rl-m-sy (Date of reference by link: 24.12.2019y.).